What are the three 3 protective measures that can be used in trenches excavations to protect workers from cave-ins?
In July, OSHA unveiled a free sticker intended to remind workers of the three primary protective systems:
- Sloping (or benching). Cutting back the trench wall at an angle inclined away from the excavation.
- Shoring. Installing aluminum hydraulics or other types of supports to prevent cave-ins.
What are excavation hazards?
There are many potential hazards when working in excavations and trenches. Probably the most common hazard at any work site is the threat of cave-in. A cave-in occurs when walls of an excavation collapse. Cave-ins can be deadly. Wall failures often occur suddenly, with little or no time for the worker to react.
What are the hazards of working in trenches and excavations?
Excavation and trenching are amongst the most dangerous operations in the construction industry. Dangers can include cave-ins, falling loads, hazardous atmospheres, and hazards from using heavy equipment.
Where personnel are required to enter excavations over?
B. 06 Where personnel are required to enter excavations/trenches over 4 ft (1.2 m) in depth, sufficient stairs, ramps, or ladders shall be provided to require no more than 25 ft (7.6 m) of lateral travel. a. At least two means of exit shall be provided for personnel working in excavations.
What are the safety measures for excavation?
Excavations shall have at least one ladder per 15 m of length in case of hazardous work and per 30 m of length in case of less hazardous works. Every part of a trench, in public areas, fences, guards or barricades shall be provided to prevent any accidents. Excavation areas shall be adequately lighted for night work.
What is the 5 foot rule excavation?
Trenches 5 feet (1.5 meters) deep or greater require a protective system unless the excavation is made entirely in stable rock. If less than 5 feet deep, a competent person may determine that a protective system is not required.
How can excavation hazards be prevented?
Provide protection by: Set spoils and equipment at least 2 feet back from the excavation. Use retaining devices, such as a trench box that will extend above the top of the trench to prevent equipment and spoils from falling back into the excavation.
What are the 4 potential hazards in excavation?
Cave-ins or collapses that can trap or crush workers. Equipment or excavated soil falling on workers (e.g., equipment is operated or soil and debris is stored too close to the excavation). Falling into the trench or excavation. Flooding or water accumulation.
What is the safety code of excavation?
1 No person shall work in any excavation, shaft, or earthwork, unless all timbering and plant used therein are inspected by a competent person before work is started and also after explosives have been used in or near the excavation, shaft or earthwork.
What are the deadliest excavation hazards?
Trench collapses, or cave-ins, pose the greatest risk to workers’ lives. When done safely, trenching operations can reduce worker exposure to other potential hazards include falls, falling loads, hazardous atmospheres, and incidents involving mobile equipment.
What is the 6 foot rule for excavation?
(ii) Each employee at the edge of a well, pit, shaft, and similar excavation 6 feet (1.8m) or more in depth shall be protected from falling by guardrail systems, fences, barricades, or covers.
What are 2 measures that could be used to prevent ground collapse when excavating?
Engineering Controls – for example benching, battering or shoring the sides of the excavation to reduce the risk of ground collapse.
How do we control risk from excavation work?
Avoid underground services and make sure not to undermine nearby structures – use safe digging practice and dig away from them. Check the excavation each day before starting work and after any event that may affect its stability. Provide safe access to get in and out. Prevent collapse – shore, bench, or batter back.
Do and don’ts for excavation work?
Don’t use iron tools without non-conductive handles where underground power cables may be present or suspected. Don’t allow the excavator machine to move near overhead or underground power lines. Don’t cross in a barricaded area without proper precautions. Don’t allow personnel to work near excavating machinery.
What are the 7 types of hazard?
The 7 common workplace hazards are:
- Safety hazards.
- Biological hazards.
- Physical hazards.
- Ergonomic hazards.
- Chemical hazards.
- Work organization hazards.
- Environmental hazards.
When a trench is 4 feet or more in depth?
In trenches that are 4 feet or more in depth, provide a means of access and egress. Spacing between ladders, stairs or ramps should not be more than 50 feet. No worker should have to travel more than 25 feet laterally to reach a means of egress (exit). Ladders must be secured and extend 36 inches above the landing.
What are the controls for excavation?
Protection from Falls, Falling Loads, and Mobile Equipment
- Install barricades.
- Use hand / mechanical signals.
- Grade soil away from the excavation.
- Fence or barricade trenches left overnight.
- Use a flagger when signs, signals, and barricades are not enough protection.
How do you make an excavation safe?
Battering the excavation sides – Battering the excavation sides to a safe angle of repose may also make the excavation safer. In granular soils, the angle of slope should be less than the natural angle of repose of the material being excavated. In wet ground a considerably flatter slope will be required.
What are the 5 types of safety?
What the Five Types of Safety Controls Look Like in Practice
- Elimination: Physically remove the hazard.
- Substitution: Replace the hazard.
- Engineering controls: Isolate people from the hazard.
- Administrative controls: Change the way people work.
- Personal protective equipment (PPE): Protect the worker.
How can we prevent hazards?
Sometimes using more than one control measure could be the most effective way to reduce the exposure to hazards.
- 1 Eliminate the hazard. Remove it completely from your workplace.
- 2 Substitute the hazard.
- 3 Isolate the hazard.
- 4 Use engineering controls.
- 5 Use administrative controls.
- 6 Use personal protective equipment (PPE)
What are the 7 types of hazards?
What are 5 examples of hazards?
physical – radiation, magnetic fields, pressure extremes (high pressure or vacuum), noise, etc., psychosocial – stress, violence, etc., safety – slipping/tripping hazards, inappropriate machine guarding, equipment malfunctions or breakdowns.
What are the 4 hazard control classes?
Using this hierarchy can lower worker exposures and reduce risk of illness or injury.
- Elimination. Elimination removes the hazard at the source.
- Substitution. Substitution is using a safer alternative to the source of the hazard.
- Engineering Controls.
- Administrative Controls.
What is the 10 hazard?
Some industries naturally carry more risks, but we have outlined the top 10 most common workplace hazards that pose a threat: Hazardous chemicals, which include the following: acids, caustic substances, disinfectants, glues, heavy metals (mercury, lead, aluminium), paint, pesticides, petroleum products, and solvents.
What are the 5 control measures?
Key points. NIOSH defines five rungs of the Hierarchy of Controls: elimination, substitution, engineering controls, administrative controls and personal protective equipment.