How many bones are in the equine skull?
The equine skull has thirty-four bones, while the human skull is made up of twenty-two bones of which eight are cranial bones and fourteen are facial bones. That is quite a number of bones making up our noggins and those of our horses.
Do horses have a zygomatic arch?
The masseter muscle is well developed for grinding, especially in the horse where it attaches to the prominent facial crest which is a rostral extension of the zygomatic arch and unique to the horse. For grinding the zygomatic arch is reinforced by a post orbital process that forms the caudal part of the bony orbit.
What is horse cranium?
The cranium of the horse is made of flat bones that articulate with each other through joints called sutures. These sutures allow the bones to move slightly leading to a slight expansion and contraction as the cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) is pumped through the cranium.
What is a Cornual process?
Cornual process – Processus cornualis The dorsal or frontal surface forms with the one of the opposite side a vast region that extends from the base of the nose to the top of the skull, filling more than the half of the dorsal surface of the head.
How long is a horse skull?
Skull length can range from 7–28 cm [31,32].
Do horses have a sagittal crest?
Sagittal crest – Crista sagittalis In horses, the distal extremity of the third metacarpal bone bears a trochlea, which is subdivided into a slightly larger medial condyle and a smaller lateral condyle by the sagittal crest.
What is the face of a horse called?
The muzzle is the part of the horse’s head that includes the area of the mouth, nostrils, chin, lips, and front of the nose.
What is hyoid bone for?
The hyoid bone is located in the front of the neck, just below the lower jaw, carrying the weight of the tongue and playing a vital role in speech and swallowing. At birth, the hyoid bone is made up of three unconnected bones.
What is hyoid horse?
The hyoid apparatus is a Y-shaped group of bones that joins onto the skull and provides attachment for several muscles, including the tongue. The muscles that control the tongue and airways, including those that attach to the hyoid apparatus are small and sit deep between the horse’s ‘jawbones’ (the mandibular rami).
What is unique about horse skull?
The skull of a horse is made up of 34 different bones, whereas a human skull only has 14. Since horses have a very different head shape and size to us, it is understandable why their skull has more bones. Coincidentally, the number of major bones in the horse’s skull is also 14.
Why do horses have no Acromion?
The lateral surface divides into two unequal fossae by the spine of the scapula – supraspinous fossa and infraspinous fossa. The spine of the horse scapula is directed backwards and not reach upto the distal end. Therefore, you will not find any acromion process like ox scapula.
What does a sagittal crest indicate?
A sagittal crest is a ridge of bone running lengthwise along the midline of the top of the skull (at the sagittal suture) of many mammalian and reptilian skulls, among others. The presence of this ridge of bone indicates that there are exceptionally strong jaw muscles.