What is unbound drug?
Unbound drug: unencapsulated drug that is not bound to plasma or tissue proteins.
Why blood flow can affect drug distribution?
After a drug enters the systemic circulation, it is distributed to the body’s tissues. Distribution is generally uneven because of differences in blood perfusion, tissue binding (eg, because of lipid content), regional pH, and permeability of cell membranes.
When is tmax reached?
and Route of Admin. The Tmax is 2.9–5.7 hrs. High fat meals can delay the time to attain peak plasma concentrations Perri and Hsu (2004). Thalidomide is metabolized mainly by a nonenzymatic hydrolysis in blood and other tissues Tseng et al (1996).
What does AUC mean in bioavailability?
area under the curve
The area under the plasma drug concentration-time curve (AUC) reflects the actual body exposure to drug after administration of a dose of the drug and is expressed in mg*h/L. This area under the curve is dependant on the rate of elimination of the drug from the body and the dose administered.
What is AUC dosing?
The most relevant pharmacokinetic parameter for drug exposure is the area under the curve (AUC) of plasma concentration x time following a single dose. During drug development, drug level sampling at multiple time points helps define the relationship between drug administration and the AUC.
How are protein bound drugs excreted?
For example, peptide and protein drugs are cleared by the same catabolic pathways used to eliminate endogenous and dietary proteins. Although both the kidney and liver can metabolize proteins by hydrolysis, there is minimal clearance of protein therapeutics via conventional renal and biliary excretion mechanisms.
How can drug absorption be improved?
To overcome deficiencies of absorption due to drug properties, the dosage form may help improve absorption by altering the disintegration and dissolution time, increasing residence time in the intestine, and providing delayed release in the lower intestine instead of the stomach.
What can affect drug distribution?
Drug distribution is impacted by several factors related to the drug and the body. The drug-related factors include blood and tissue binding proteins, pH, and perfusion. The body-related factors include body water composition, fat composition, diseases (e.g., volume depletion, burns, third spacing).
What is Tmax a measure of?
Tmax: time to peak drug and/or metabolite(s) concentration. AUC0–∞: area under the concentration–time curve of the drug and/or metabolite(s), extrapolated to infinity. AUC0-T: area under the concentration–time curve of the drug and/or metabolite(s), calculated to a specific time point T.
How do you find TMAX?
tmax = vy0 / g tmax = m/sec. / 9.8m/sec. = 0.408 sec. So, now you know how long it takes for the object to reach the top of its parabola motion path.
Is higher AUC better?
The Area Under the Curve (AUC) is the measure of the ability of a classifier to distinguish between classes and is used as a summary of the ROC curve. The higher the AUC, the better the performance of the model at distinguishing between the positive and negative classes.
Why is carboplatin dosed as AUC?
Maximum Carboplatin Dose Calculation3 The FDA has recommended that physicians consider capping the dose of carboplatin for desired exposure (AUC) to avoid potential toxicity due to overdosing. The maximum dose is based on a GFR estimate that is capped at 125 mL/min for patients with normal renal function.
What is AUC vancomycin?
AUC vancomycin dosing represents the total vancomycin concentration in the blood over a period of time, usually over 24 hours. In order to calculate this manually: Two vancomycin levels need to be drawn when the patient’s vancomycin is at a stable concentration, usually referred to as steady-state.