What is an oligonucleotide array?
An oligonucleotide array consists of a series of short (typically 20~30 bases) single-stranded DNA sequences (oligonucleotides, or “oligos”) attached to a glass chip about the size of a microscope cover slip. In the arrangement shown here, each adjacent oligo differs from its neighbor only at the last base.
Are microarrays expensive?
Microarrays are expensive. Depending on the platform, a single experiment can cost hundreds if not thousands of dollars, and there is currently no consensus about how many replicates need to be done, although the number, fortunately, appears to be low46, 47.
When would you use a microarray?
Today, DNA microarrays are used in clinical diagnostic tests for some diseases. Sometimes they are also used to determine which drugs might be best prescribed for particular individuals, because genes determine how our bodies handle the chemistry related to those drugs.
What is the purpose of microarray?
A microarray is a laboratory tool used to detect the expression of thousands of genes at the same time. DNA microarrays are microscope slides that are printed with thousands of tiny spots in defined positions, with each spot containing a known DNA sequence or gene.
Who discovered oligonucleotides?
Gobind Khorana became interested in the synthesis of oligonucleotides. He introduced two concepts to the field that made possible the convenient synthesis of oligonucleotides more than just a few bases long.
How are oligonucleotides manufactured?
The oligonucleotide manufacturing process consists of five major steps, (1) synthesis, (2) cleavage and deprotection (C&D), (3) purification, (4) desalting and concentration and (5) lyophilization, as shown in Fig. 1. Additional steps can be added depending on the type of oligonucleotide being manufactured.
What is a disadvantage of microarray?
The most significant disadvantages of microarrays include the high cost of a single experiment, the large number of probe designs based on sequences of low-specificity, as well as the lack of control over the pool of analyzed transcripts since most of the commonly used microarray platforms utilize only one set of …